The Second Chapter
Having a Humble Opinion of Self
EVERY man naturally desires knowledge  ; but what good is knowledge
without fear of God? Indeed a humble rustic who serves God is better than a
proud intellectual who neglects his soul to study the course of the stars.
 He who knows himself well becomes mean in his own eyes and is not happy
when praised by men.
If I knew all things in the world and had not charity, what would it profit
me before God Who will judge me by my deeds?
Shun too great a desire for knowledge, for in it there is much fretting and
delusion. Intellectuals like to appear learned and to be called wise. Yet
there are many things the knowledge of which does little or no good to the
soul, and he who concerns himself about other things than those which lead
to salvation is very unwise.
Many words do not satisfy the soul; but a good life eases the mind and a
clean conscience inspires great trust in God.
The more you know and the better you understand, the more severely will you
be judged, unless your life is also the more holy. Do not be proud,
therefore, because of your learning or skill. Rather, fear because of the
talent given you. If you think you know many things and understand them well
enough, realize at the same time that there is much you do not know. Hence,
do not affect wisdom, but admit your ignorance. Why prefer yourself to
anyone else when many are more learned, more cultured than you?
If you wish to learn and appreciate something worth while, then love to be
unknown and considered as nothing. Truly to know and despise self is the
best and most perfect counsel. To think of oneself as nothing, and always to
think well and highly of others is the best and most perfect wisdom.
Wherefore, if you see another sin openly or commit a serious crime, do not
consider yourself better, for you do not know how long you can remain in
good estate. All men are frail, but you must admit that none is more frail
 Aristotle, Metaphysics, i. 1.
 Augustine, Confessions V. 4.
The Third Chapter
The Doctrine of Truth
HAPPY is he to whom truth manifests itself, not in signs and words that
fade, but as it actually is. Our opinions, our senses often deceive us and
we discern very little.
What good is much discussion of involved and obscure matters when our
ignorance of them will not be held against us on Judgment Day? Neglect of
things which are profitable and necessary and undue concern with those which
are irrelevant and harmful, are great folly.
We have eyes and do not see.
What, therefore, have we to do with questions of philosophy? He to whom the
Eternal Word speaks is free from theorizing. For from this Word are all
things and of Him all things speak—the Beginning Who also speaks to us.
Without this Word no man understands or judges aright. He to whom it becomes
everything, who traces all things to it and who sees all things in it, may
ease his heart and remain at peace with God.
O God, You Who are the truth, make me one with You in love everlasting. I am
often wearied by the many things I hear and read, but in You is all that I
long for. Let the learned be still, let all creatures be silent before You;
You alone speak to me.
The more recollected a man is, and the more simple of heart he becomes, the
easier he understands sublime things, for he receives the light of knowledge
from above. The pure, simple, and steadfast spirit is not distracted by many
labors, for he does them all for the honor of God. And since he enjoys
interior peace he seeks no selfish end in anything. What, indeed, gives more
trouble and affliction than uncontrolled desires of the heart?
A good and devout man arranges in his mind the things he has to do, not
according to the whims of evil inclination but according to the dictates of
right reason. Who is forced to struggle more than he who tries to master
himself? This ought to be our purpose, then: to conquer self, to become
stronger each day, to advance in virtue.
Every perfection in this life has some imperfection mixed with it and no
learning of ours is without some darkness. Humble knowledge of self is a
surer path to God than the ardent pursuit of learning. Not that learning is
to be considered evil, or knowledge, which is good in itself and so ordained
by God; but a clean conscience and virtuous life ought always to be
preferred. Many often err and accomplish little or nothing because they try
to become learned rather than to live well.
If men used as much care in uprooting vices and implanting virtues as they
do in discussing problems, there would not be so much evil and scandal in
the world, or such laxity in religious organizations. On the day of
judgment, surely, we shall not be asked what we have read but what we have
done; not how well we have spoken but how well we have lived.
Tell me, where now are all the masters and teachers whom you knew so well in
life and who were famous for their learning? Others have already taken their
places and I know not whether they ever think of their predecessors. During
life they seemed to be something; now they are seldom remembered. How
quickly the glory of the world passes away! If only their lives had kept
pace with their learning, then their study and reading would have been worth
How many there are who perish because of vain worldly knowledge and too
little care for serving God. They became vain in their own conceits because
they chose to be great rather than humble.
He is truly great who has great charity. He is truly great who is little in
his own eyes and makes nothing of the highest honor. He is truly wise who
looks upon all earthly things as folly that he may gain Christ. He who does
God’s will and renounces his own is truly very learned.
The Fourth Chapter
Prudence in Action
DO NOT yield to every impulse and suggestion but consider things carefully
and patiently in the light of God’s will. For very often, sad to say, we are
so weak that we believe and speak evil of others rather than good. Perfect
men, however, do not readily believe every talebearer, because they know
that human frailty is prone to evil and is likely to appear in speech.
Not to act rashly or to cling obstinately to one’s opinion, not to believe
everything people say or to spread abroad the gossip one has heard, is great
Take counsel with a wise and conscientious man. Seek the advice of your
betters in preference to following your own inclinations.
A good life makes a man wise according to God and gives him experience in
many things, for the more humble he is and the more subject to God, the
wiser and the more at peace he will be in all things.
The Fifth Chapter
Reading the Holy Scripture
TRUTH, not eloquence, is to be sought in reading the Holy Scriptures; and
every part must be read in the spirit in which it was written. For in the
Scriptures we ought to seek profit rather than polished diction.
Likewise we ought to read simple and devout books as willingly as learned
and profound ones. We ought not to be swayed by the authority of the writer,
whether he be a great literary light or an insignificant person, but by the
love of simple truth. We ought not to ask who is speaking, but mark what is
said. Men pass away, but the truth of the Lord remains forever. God speaks
to us in many ways without regard for persons.
Our curiosity often impedes our reading of the Scriptures, when we wish to
understand and mull over what we ought simply to read and pass by.
If you would profit from it, therefore, read with humility, simplicity, and
faith, and never seek a reputation for being learned. Seek willingly and
listen attentively to the words of the saints; do not be displeased with the
sayings of the ancients, for they were not made without purpose.
The Sixth Chapter
WHEN a man desires a thing too much, he at once becomes ill at ease. A proud
and avaricious man never rests, whereas he who is poor and humble of heart
lives in a world of peace. An unmortified man is quickly tempted and
overcome in small, trifling evils; his spirit is weak, in a measure carnal
and inclined to sensual things; he can hardly abstain from earthly desires.
Hence it makes him sad to forego them; he is quick to anger if reproved. Yet
if he satisfies his desires, remorse of conscience overwhelms him because he
followed his passions and they did not lead to the peace he sought.
True peace of heart, then, is found in resisting passions, not in satisfying
them. There is no peace in the carnal man, in the man given to vain
attractions, but there is peace in the fervent and spiritual man.
The Seventh Chapter
Avoiding False Hope and Pride
VAIN is the man who puts his trust in men, in created things.
Do not be ashamed to serve others for the love of Jesus Christ and to seem
poor in this world. Do not be self-sufficient but place your trust in God.
Do what lies in your power and God will aid your good will. Put no trust in
your own learning nor in the cunning of any man, but rather in the grace of
God Who helps the humble and humbles the proud.
If you have wealth, do not glory in it, nor in friends because they are
powerful, but in God Who gives all things and Who desires above all to give
Himself. Do not boast of personal stature or of physical beauty, qualities
which are marred and destroyed by a little sickness. Do not take pride in
your talent or ability, lest you displease God to Whom belongs all the
natural gifts that you have.
Do not think yourself better than others lest, perhaps, you be accounted
worse before God Who knows what is in man. Do not take pride in your good
deeds, for God’s judgments differ from those of men and what pleases them
often displeases Him. If there is good in you, see more good in others, so
that you may remain humble. It does no harm to esteem yourself less than
anyone else, but it is very harmful to think yourself better than even one.
The humble live in continuous peace, while in the hearts of the proud are
envy and frequent anger.
The Eighth Chapter
DO NOT open your heart to every man, but discuss your affairs with one who
is wise and who fears God. Do not keep company with young people and
strangers. Do not fawn upon the rich, and do not be fond of mingling with
the great. Associate with the humble and the simple, with the devout and
virtuous, and with them speak of edifying things. Be not intimate with any
woman, but generally commend all good women to God. Seek only the intimacy
of God and of His angels, and avoid the notice of men.
We ought to have charity for all men but familiarity with all is not
expedient. Sometimes it happens that a person enjoys a good reputation among
those who do not know him, but at the same time is held in slight regard by
those who do. Frequently we think we are pleasing others by our presence and
we begin rather to displease them by the faults they find in us.